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CONTENTS\

1. Arches
2. Bargeboard/vergeboard
3. Construction
4. Dormers
5. Molding
6. Ornament
7. Roofs
8. Siding
9. Towers
10. Windows
11. Navigate around site

 

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Types of Arches

 

centering  - the wooden scaffolding that was set up so a true arch could be made.

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flat arch - An arch having a horizontal intrados with voussoirs radiating from the center. Also know as a “jack arch” or :straight arch"..

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French arch- A flat arch having voussoirs inclined to the same angle on each side of the center keystone.

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intrados - the inside curve or surface of an arch or vault.

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keystone - the central, topmost stone of an arch. It locks in the voussoirs before the centering scaffolding can be removed. (p. 22 in the window arches, .

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lancet arch - A Gothic or pointed arch.

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ogee arch - S-shaped double curve in Gothic architecture.

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round arch - (False arch) equal to half a circle. A semicircular arch without voissoirs. Keystones are sometimes used for decoration but has nothing to do with the structure of the arch.

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Roman arch (True Arch) - An arch made of voissoirs and a keystone

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segmental arch - a section of arch that equals the arc of less than a half circle.

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soffit - underpart of an arch, architrave, or overhanging cornice.

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spandrel - space between an arched opening and the rectangle formed by the outer moldings above and to one side - often filled with painted decoration.

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fretwork spandrels - were made with intricate cutwork.

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Tudor arch - a triangular arch with soft curves at the bottom two corners.

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voussoir - (voo-swar’) wedge-shaped stone of which an arch or vault is built

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Bargeboard/Vergeboard

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bargeboard/vergeboard - the extended boards from a gable end-often decorated in Victorian and Gothic architecture. 

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bullseye - a small round decorative piece with a smaller circle inside of it resembling an eye.

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chevron - a zigzag molding (like an upside down V) in Norman architecture, Romanesque.

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crocket - ) A projecting decorative feature in Gothic architectur carved in a variety of leaf shapes. The decoration projects at regular intervals along the inclined side of a pinnacle ,gable or vergeboard.

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foil -”leaf” in Gothic architecture.

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gingerbread - a word to describe any kind of decoration on a home found in such places as the gables, vergeboards, porches, eaves, and around windows or doors. The decoration is generally created with a sawn scroll work technique. However, when the word “gingerbread” is used, it can also refer to homes that are distastefully and gaudily ornamented without much regard to the specific ornament used.  It is a word I would use sparingly because of its negative connotations. (See sawn scroll work).

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mouchette - a teardrop-shaped Gothic tracery design.

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pendant - a decorative piece (made of masonry or turned wood) suspended from a roof or vergeboard: used especially in Gothic architecture

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quatrefoil - four-leafed Gothic design found in tracery.

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sawn scroll work- when the scroll saw was invented many decorative features for homes were made for vergeboards, brackets, tympanums.  The term “gingerbread” often refers to this type of external architectural decoration.

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tracery - elaborate ornamental pattern-work in stone subdividing the upper part of a Gothic window.

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trefoil - three-leafed as in Gothic tracery design.

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vergeboard - see bargeboard.

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.Construction
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acropolis - the high, fortified part of an ancient Greek city.

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apse - the semicircular end of a basilica, often has a statue within it.

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balloon frame - introduced in the 1830s, a system of framing a building in which wood studs extend in one  piece from the top of the foundation sill-plate to the top roof plate; floor joists are nailed to the studs and are supported by horizontal boards. Fell out of style when it was noted that fires which broke out inside these buildings spread easily upwards through the walls.

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barrel vault - or tunnel vault; a series of pressed-together arches, they were heavy and had enormous thrust or pressure downward and outward, usually had heavy walls because of this.

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basilica - long halls serving a variety of civic purposed - beginning in Hellenistic Greece. They became standard in every Roman town for courts of law.

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battered chimney - a brick or masonry chimney with sides that are graduated so that its rectangular shape is wider at the bottom than the top.

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bungalow - A bungalow is modest in size and scale; is one or one-and-one-half stories high;-is low to the ground in appearance; has a rectangular or square shape; has deep roof overhangs and wide eaves; has a porch across the facade, in front, and/or on two or three sides; has an exterior typically composed of different materials; has natural wood related to the region or area; has colors and tones related to nature and the immediate environment; is affordable; is integrated with natural materials, colors and forms; is an example of art combined with form and function.

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buttress - a heave added vertical part of a Gothic or Romanesque cathedral that contains the outward pressure of the vaults.  Eventually these were separated from the building itself yet still anchored to the vaults and were called flying buttresses.

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cantilever - a beam or other structure projecting from a wall and supporting an extension to a building, as on a cantilevered balcony or upper store.

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cast iron - a hard, brittle, nonmalleable iron-based alloy containing 2.0% to 4.5% carbon and 0.5% to 3% silicon, cast in a sand mold and machined to make many building products.

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cella -  the main room of a temple - the narrow hall that ran the entire length of the temple.

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choir - Believed to be the most important part of the church in early Gothic cathedral architecture. It is the part between the nave and the main altar reserved for the choir and clergy.

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coffer - an ornamental sunken panel, especially in a ceiling. Used to save weight on domed ceilings in ancient architecture.

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coquina  - A material used with early Spanish Colonial styled buildings.  It is made of limestone made of shell aggregate the Spanish discovered in 1583.

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clerestory - the row of large windows in a church, basilica, or cathedral.

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column - A vertical, usually circular pillar, generally used as a support for a beam or other structure, such as an entablature.

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dome-on-drum construction - The Romans used this method to construct their domes. The dome section was placed on top of a round drum (like a low cut cylinder) section which often was placed over a square or rectangular section.

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engaged column - like the reed bundles and wooden supports that came before them that were set into mud-brick walls to strengthen them.

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facade - the front face or elevation of a building. (All buildings have a facade though some are decorated more than the rest of the building).

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furring walls - "Furring Out, " means setting off a new wall in front of one already built. This provides for dead air space the extra protection of the surface of the ":furred out" wall. The water proofing of the the builidng wall and the air space left between is a good guarantee against destruction due to moisture. Furred out panels can be emplyed by the fresco painter to great advantage giving her a practical and perfectly safe wall to work on if certain precautions are taken to ensure a stable and strong surface.

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groin vault -  or square vault, made by intersecting two barrel vaults at right angles. The spaces created by this vault were called bay areas. (See barrel vault)

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Greek order columns - Doric (plain capital, fluted, with no base), Ionic (a capital with opposing spiraling volutes) and Corinthian (ornate capital with stylized acanthus leaves).

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incised -  cut into, carved, engraved - used in Greek black figure art.

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limestone - An ancient building material often covered with a coat of stucco to provide a smooth surface and painted.

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lintel - a horizontal beam over an opening in a wall that carries the weight of the structure above.

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nave - upper walk of the center track of a church or basilica.

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newel cap and post - the end post of a balustrade, the cap is on the top of the newel; an ornamented post at the top, bottom, or landing of a stairway that supports the handrail.

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order - Greek temple architecture was divided into three orders (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian), then the Romans added three more (Composite, Roman Doric, Tuscan).  Each order had its own set of proportions and ornamental requirements (most apparent in its column and entablature)  that the architects had to adhere to.

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palazzo - an Italian palace, or any large extravagant building of a similar style.

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pier - solid masonry supports with no base or capital; Romanesque and Gothic pillars; the solid support between openings in buildings.

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prairie house – a house style associated predominantly with the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright, the design was influenced by the open prairie of mid-western American. The houses featured open plans with a low, horizontal emphasis.

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quonset - a half-cylinder on the ground that is covered with corrugated metal. The frame of the original 16 x 36 foot Quonset was curved steel T-ribs, its floor tongue-and-groove and its exterior galvanized. Subsequent design revisions included flat welded ribs 2 x 3 5/8 inch, lighter plywood flooring, and a less-visible olive-drab exterior. The standard size came to be 30 x 48 feet plus 4 foot overhangs on each end. Fuller produced more than 153,000 Quonsets for the Navy.In 1941 the United States Navy considered options for housing men and operations in far-flung stations. The George A. Fuller construction company, at its facility near Quonset Point, Rhode Island, produced the Quonset for the navy.

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Roman order columns - Composite (capital is half Corinthian and half Ionic), Roman Doric (similar to Greek Doric), and Tuscan (non-fluted, not decorated).

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saltbox - A type of wood-frame building, one-and-a-half or two stories in the front and one story in the rear. The double-pitched roof is short in the front and long in the rear, extending close to the ground.

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square-boxed column - a supporting column that is square.  The capital and base are also square and unornamented. Can be found in Federal styled buildings. (See Ermatinger House in Oregon City).

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tabby wall – raised by setting two boards on edge. Into this frame was then poured limeshell mortar mixed with sand and oyster shells. When that section had set, the boards were raised a level and the process repeated.  Used as a kind of cement to coat Spanish Colonial architecture. Early Spanish Colonial homes in St. Augustine, Florida, were built of coquina and then coated with tabby.

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thermae - Roman baths

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wrought iron - a tough, malleable, relatively soft iron that is readily forged and welded, having a fibrous structure containing approximately 0.2% carbon and a small amount of uniformly distributed slag.

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villa - A house in the country, often large and luxurious.

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ziggurats: platforms with the temple of the local god on them - shops, houses clustered around them. Found in Mesopotamia, built by the Sumerians.

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Dormers

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eyebrow - roof windows that look like eyebrows.

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facade dormer - used in Gothic domestic architecture.  It is a dormer that is featured in the center roofline of the facade.  Usually has a lancet window and vergeboard scroll sawn decor.

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gabled or hipped - roof windows that are gabled or hipped.(p. 28-left side of roof

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shed - a dormer with a flat roof that slopes down from the roof attachment to the front.

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Molding

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cable molding - molding that looks like rope.

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drip molding - (eared) a projecting molding over doors, window, and archways to direct rain away from the opening. The “eared”extensions at the head casing trim approximate stone details found in Greek and Roman Classical architecture.

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hood molding - a decorative molding over a window or door frame).

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swans neck - a pediment with an open apex; each side terminates in curves resembling a swan’s neck.

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.Ornament

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acanthus - a plant found on the shores of the Mediterranean and particularly admired by the Greeks and Romans for the elegance of its leaves.  Found on many classical designs such as the Corinthian and Composite columns.

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acroterion - A classical ornament or crowning adorning a pediment usually at gable corners and crown, generally of monsters, sphinxes, griffins or gorgons, sometimes massive floral complexes.

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acroteria - plinths for statues or ornaments placed at the apex and ends of a pediment: also, more loosely, both the plints and what stands on them.

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amorino - ornament from the Renaissance; little Italian chubby naked cupids.

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anthemion - Greek ornament of alternating palmettes and lotus motifs or two types of palmettes (one open, one closed) usually found on a cornice or neck of Ionic capital; used a lot in the 1700s.

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antefixae - Ornamental blocks on the edge of a roof to conceal the ends of the tiles.

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arabesque - geometric intricate surface decoration; no human figures; has interlaced patterns.

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architrave - the lowest part of an entablature, or the molded frame around a door or window opening.

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Art Deco - popular in the 1920s-30s, decorative arts after the war, geometric, stylized, derived from Art Nouveau, bright colors, sunbursts, Egyptian motifs.

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Art Nouveau -popular in England in the 1880s. It was the name of a shop that opened in Paris in 1895 to sell objects of the modern style, a decorative arts design: flowing expressive lines, whiplash curves, flower and leaf motifs, female figures with long undulating hair, came from the Arts and Crafts movement in Britain.  It was influenced by Japanese art, Rococo and Celtic art.

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Arts and Crafts - a movement protesting industrialization, infusing the crafts back into the world we see and live in.

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ball flower - three leaves embracing a ball; 14th century Gloucester English design; also called “bell flower”.

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baluster -  It is a small column or a little, round, short pillar that is part of a balustrade. The word “baluster” comes from the Italian word blausto or balaustra meaning the flower of the pomegranate. 

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balustrade - handrail supported by balusters; any of the small posts that support the upper rail of a railing, as in a staircase or porch rail .

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Baroque - started in Italy and Spain, a post-Renaissance style, popular in Europe in the 1600s - 1750s. It represented dynamism, movement. Baroque means “irregular, contorted, grotesque”. This was a time of theatre on a grander scale. Domes were big, facades were highly ornamented which found its total cartharsis in the Rococo Period which pushed the style to its most extreme.

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Bauhaus – A style of architecture that reflected the push towards functionalism and industrial design. A German design school (1919-33) promoted this style of modernist architecture and design. It was closed by the Nazis in 1933. The New Bauhaus opened in Chicago in 1937.

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battlements  -  slotted or alternating solid and open parapet that originally appeared on castles and other ancient fortified buildings.

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Beaux Arts - The American Renaissance period which ran from 1885 to the 1920s that encompassed Italian Renaissance and Neoclassical revival styles.  Ornament and facades were featured in limestone, buff-colored or yellow brick, and accented with enormous cartouches and sculptural ornamental works.

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belt-course - a horizontal “belt” formed by a projecting course (or courses) in a masonry wall for decorative purposes.

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bracket - a small projection, usually decorated, that supports or appears to support a projecting eaves or lintel.

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Brutalism – This style began in England in 1954 coined to characterize the style of Le Corbusier and others who were inspired by such buildings. Brutalism nearly always used concrete exposed at it roughest and handled with overemphais on big chunky member which collide ruthlessly. The old Oregon Historical Society Building on the park blocks in Portland, Oregon is an example of Brutalist architecture.

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capital - The head or top of a column or pilaster.

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cartouche- an oval tablet with an elaborate scroll-carved frame, used as ornamentation for building moldings, borders, panels, etc.

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caryatid - sculptured female figure used as a column to support an entablature.

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corbel - a block of stone, elaborately carved, projecting from a wall and sometimes supporting a load like the beams of a roof, floor or vault, or sometimes used for decorative effect only. Also: a projecting block supporting a beam or other

orizontal element. A vault or arch can be constructed from a series of corbels each projecting from the one below it.

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cornice - the upper element of an entablature, molded and projecting, or any continuous molded and projecting cap to a wall or window or door opening. (p. 16 - along the roof top and around the gable ends making the gables into pediments, p. 20 roof line porch, and bay window roof lines, p. 22 - along bay window and building’s roof lines, p. 24 - along all roof lines of first and second floors, p.26. “belt cornice” under clock, p. 28, p. 32, p.34, p. 38 - “belt cornices” and along roof lines.

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dentils - Greek classical feature of a row of small rectangular shapes placed closely together  beneath the cornice.  Teeth-like in appearance.

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A dog-tooth or "dogtooth pattern", in architecture, is an ornament found in the moldings of medieval work of the commencement of the 12th century, which is thought to have been introduced by the Crusaders from the East. The earliest example is found in the hall at Rabbath Ammon in Moab (c. 614) built by the Sassanians, where it decorates the arch molding of the blind arcades and the string courses. The pattern consists of four flower petals forming a square or diamond shape with a central element. The petals have the form of the pointed conical canine tooth, eye tooth or cuspid.

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egg n’ dart - (also leaf  and dart, also alpha and omega - beginning and end) Classical ornamental design that forms a course of alternating oval shapes and arrows.

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entablature - a feature that is part of an Order of classical Greek architecture.  The entablature is above the capital of the column and encompasses the architrave that simulates the beam across the columns or posts, the frieze, an area left plain or highly sculpted or decorated, and the cornice, the projected border for the roof line. (all the buildings with columns have an entablature though none are ornate except the Hollywood on

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entasis - slight convex curve applied to columns in Classical architecture to counter the illusion that would otherwise occur of the columns being slightly concave.

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exedrae - A portico  or open room with seats in ancient Greece. Renaissance architect, Brunelleschi added this to cathedral architecture.

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festoon - A carved ornament in the form of a garland of fruit and flowers, tied with ribbons and suspended at both ends in a loop; commonly used on a frieze or panel also called a swag. (p. 42 on the right and left sides just above the marquee).

fleur-de-lis - French lily flower; heraldic flower with three petals forming a stylized lily.

fluted - curved indentations that run up and down along a column’s shaft.

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fresco - A technique of painting in which paint, generally watercolors, is applied on fresh wet stucco or plaster, with the colors being absorbed into the surface.

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fret work/key/meander  -  Greek repeated rectangular pattern design only using straight lines throughout.

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frieze - the middle division of an entablature, below the cornice (all buildings with an entablature and columns have a frieze though most are not ornate as they were in ancient times

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Gothic Revival - This style is the opening act for the Victorian Age.  It is a reflection of the Picturesque movement (an aesthetic point of view celebrating the variety, texture, and irregularity inherent in nature) that began in Europe. Gothic Revival buildings often had vaulted ceilings, battlements, lancet-arched windows and doorways, and tracery (shapes found on vergeboards and windows that look like cutouts in stone.) Gothic Revival elements are based on architectural ideas from the Middle Ages. Gothic Revival was popular in the 1830s and 40s. English architecture, Augustus Pugin, was the innovative architect of the Gothic Revival style of architecture. Gothic Revival buildings a featured pointed or lancet doorways and windows, spire, and vertical features.

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Greek Revival  - a phase of Neoclassicism that spread the idea of “noble simplicity and calm grandeur."

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guilloche - an ornamental border formed of two or more interlaced bands around a series of circular voids.

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impasto - a thick rough application of paint

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intonaco - is the old Italian name applied to the last mortar layer upon which a fresco painting is made. The kind of surface finishing the intonaco should have is a matter of personal taste and often involves the use particular types of plastering materials and troweling techniques such as a marble dust intonaco - a dry marble dust is sifted through a 34 mesh or finer sift and then is miexed with 5 parts lime and 7 parts marble dust, or a sand intonaco - which is made up from finely sifted banksand (about 7 parts to 5 parts of lime.

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Italian Renaissance - popular in 1800s-1920s. This is a revival architecture directly inspired by the great Renaissance houses of Italy. Many of these design features were copied from actual Renaissance landmarks of Roman, Florentine, and Venetian pillazzis and villas, and then translated into American palaces primarily in our cities.

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loggia - passage or gallery colonaded on 1 or 2 sides.

meander -a running ornament consisting of an intricate variety of Greek fretwork.

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modillion - Greek classical feature of large rectangular shapes closely placed  beneath the cornice, that are similar to a bracket in use, although modillions are purely ornamental as they formalize the look of beams protruding from beneath the roof of a early wood-framed building. (p. 26-under the circular roof, p.38 - under first roof cornice, p. 40 - under roof cornice).

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Neoclassical - This was a time of classical revival in Europe during 1700s through the 1800s.

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oxbow - a large rounded design usually found inside porch posts made of one piece of wood that is placed on a mold and steamed into shape.

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Palladian Revival - 1720s. Palladio influenced a classical revival that encompassed the ideals of, simple, geometric forms.  It was the opposite of Baroque pomposity. Palladianism launched by Lord Burlington in England spread to the American colonies and became known as Georgian style after King Georges. 

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palmette - A stylized palm leaf shape used as a decorative element in classsical art and architecture.

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pergola - covered walk in a garden.

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phialai - a Greek shallow bowl with small raised centers (navels-mesomphalic) beneath which the fingers would fit.  The shape was Eastern, where handleless round-bottomed cups were preferred to Greek shapes. In Greece they were commonly used in pouring libations.

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pieta - during a time when emotional appeal and realism was important in religious sculpture, the pieta (which means “pity”) was designed to serve private devotion. It became a contemplation image.

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pilaster - a rectangular column projecting slightly from a wall.  In classical architecture it conforms with the order used.

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plinth - The square that comes below the base of a column.

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Renaissance - a period in history that was the first to become aware of its own existence and coin a label on itself.  People knew they were no longer in the Middle Ages and had reached a time of rebirth of individualism, humanism, of intellectual activity, revivals of ancient architectural styles.  The goal was not to duplicate but to equal the great works for antiquity by studying Classical architecture.

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Rococo - Late Baroque era - buildings were whimsical, playful, full of fantasy, and more lighthearted that the typical Baroque buildings.
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Romanesque - a pre-Gothic (pre-1200s) medieval architectural style with links with the Mediterranean tradition.  Round arches were used, and buildings were solid and heavy like buildings in ancient Rome, hence the name.

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Romanticism - Part of the Enlightenment; the age of reason and the common good.  It was more an attitude of mind than a style of art and architecture.  All revival styles fall into the Romantic Picturesque ideal.

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scroll brackets - brackets in the shape of scrolls.

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spool-and-spindle - Eastlake ornament of turned wood, shaped like wooden spools (rimmed cylinders) and spindles (rounded tapering sticks).

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sunburst - an Eastlake decorative element shaped like a sun with radiating rays; often only a semi or quarter circle of the motif is used.

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swag - a decoration resembling a garland of fruit, flower, or leaves draped between two points;a festoon. (See festoon).

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triglyph - In the frieze of a Doric entablature, a rectangular block that has three vertical strips formed by two grooves.

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trumeau - a center post supporting the lintel that spans the width of an arch in a Romanesque portal ensemble.

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Tudor Age - This time period includes the styles called Tudor (a style developed during the reign of Henry VIII in the 1500s), Elizabethan, Jacobean, and Jacobethan (styles developed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and King James I of England during the 1500s and 1600s). These buildings were derived from English Renaissance buildings of the 16th and 17th centuries.  The Jacobethan style refers to the mixture of Jacobean and Elizabethan styles.

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urn - large ornamental bulbous containers often containing floral arrangements that became a decorative end piece on roofs and newel posts in classical Greek architecture.

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Victorian - This style represents a break with the classical restrictions of proportion and order. The Victorian era was a time of “free expression” in architecture. On Victorian buildings you often see a loose interpretive style of Italian Renaissance design that is sometimes called “free classical”. Buildings were highly detailed and were built during the reign of Queen Victoria of England, hence the name “Victorian”).

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volute -  A spiral scroll-like ornament commonly found on Ionic, Composite or Corinthian columns.

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wave or running dog - Greek ornamental design to look like a course of waves.

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Roofs

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cresting - A decorative fence-like ornament on the ridge of a roof.

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cupola – a small dome, a rounded roof on a circular or polygonal base crowning a roof or turret.  Also, a small, often squarish tower on a roof.

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dome – a convex covering over a circular, square, or polygonal space. Domes may be hemispherical, semi-elliptical, pointed or onion-shaped. Also, a large rounded roof or ceiling on a circular or many-sided base, cupola.

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finial - formal ornament at the top of a newel or gable.

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gambrel roof - a double-sloped roof, characteristic of Dutch Colonial architecture.

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hipped roof - a roof which slopes upward on all four sides.

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imbrication - a pattern or design resembling the regular overlapping of tiles or shingles.

jerkin head roof/clipped gable - a gable roof, truncated or clipped at the apex.

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lantern - An upright structure on a roof or dome for letting in light and air or for decoration

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mansard roof - a roof having two slopes on each of its four sides; the lower slope is steeper than the upper.  Mansard roofs have dormers in them so that a usable third floor is created as opposed to an attic.

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parapet - a low wall used as protection in any location where there is a drop like at the edge of a roof, balcony or terrac.

 

rafter – An inclined timber which forms the side of a roof, to which the roof covering is attached.

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Siding

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board and batten - a form of wood siding for exterior walls, consisting of long vertical boards and thin strips, or battens, which extend over adjacent boards or joints (the spaces between adjacent surfaces).

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brick work - “Stretchers” are full-sized bricks, “headers” are half-sized bricks, and a “course” is a single horizontal line of bricks. A “bond” is any of a variety of arrangements of bricks having a regular, recognizable, usually overlapping (or staggered) pattern to increase the strength and enhance the appearance of the construction.      

There are many kinds of bonds in brickwork. To see these and learn more about masonry and brickwork, I suggest taking a look at architectural manuals and masonry manuals in the library, at book stores or on line, which will illustrate and explain brick design work.

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clapboard - horizontal or vertical siding that overlaps.

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coping - When used to describe architectural features “coping” refers to the top layer of a brick or stone wall.  It is usually built with a slope to shed water.

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curtain wall - a protective wall around a castle. A star-shaped curtain wall has six angles projections or alients where the soldiers fight enemies. One example is Braemar Castle in Scotland. Currently a curtain wall is the outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtain wall faŤade does not carry any dead load weight from the building other than its own dead load weight. The wall transfers horizontal wind loads that are incident upon it to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, sway induced by wind and seismic forces acting on the building, and its own dead load weight forces.

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Another famous star curtain wall is around the Statue of Liberty in the USA.

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diamond shingles - ornamental shingles that when overlapped form diamonds.(p. 32 - on the towers, p. 33 - shingle work above the star, comet and man on the moon).

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diaper pattern - all-over surface decoration of a small repeated pattern such as squares or lozenges.

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dog tooth - a small square decoration that slopes to a point in the middle of the square.

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Eastlake - a style of ornamentation using numerously variegated Victorian designs including stick work, spindles and knobs, brackets, sawn scroll work, “free classical” detailing, Gothic additions, finials, roof cresting, towers and cupolas, oxbow, any number of scalloped styled siding.

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facade - the front elevation of a building.

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free classical - classical ornamental forms that are not constricted to Classical proportions but are used freely.

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gable - The portion above eaves level of an end wall of a building with a pitched roof. The gable is triangular in form.  Sometimes it refers to the entire end wall.

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half-timbering - in late medieval architecture, a type of construction in which the heavy timber framework is exposed, and the spaces between the studs filled with wattle-and-daub, plaster or brickwork. The effect of half-timbering was imitated by

the Stick, Queen Anne, Tudor and Jacobethan styles-architectural styles fashionable in the 19th-20th C

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herringbone - a decorative pattern of stone, brick or tile that looks like the spine of a herring with the ribs extended from opposite sides in rows of parallel, slanting lines.

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panel - any flat, rigid support prepared with a ground for painting on, can be recessed or protruding/

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quoin - cornerstone of a building, rising the entire height of the wall, and distinguished from the main construction material by size, texture, or conspicuous joining.  In masonry construction, they reinforce the corners,; in wood construction, they do not bear any load, are made of wood and imitate the effect of stone or brick.

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rustication - masonry characterized by smooth or roughly textures block faces, and strongly emphasized recessed joint.

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sawtooth shingles - shingles in the triangular shapes of teeth in a horizontal row.

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scalloped, fish scale, or circle siding - siding shaped like the round overlapping scales of a fish. The siding may be rounded or segmentally-shaped.

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shiplag siding/tongue and groove - siding that fits together and doesn’t overlap like clapboard.

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stick work - the decorative stick-like pieces of wood placed in diagonal, vertical, and horizontal patterns of the outside of a wood-frame building; usually found in gable ends and around windows.

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stucco - An exterior wall covering consisting of a mixture of cement, sand, lime, and water or of cement, sand, and hair.

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terra cotta - A red-brown fired, but unglazed clay used for roof tiles and decorative wall covering. Glazed terra cotta was frequently used for exterior decoration on buildings of the early 20th century.

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tympanum - the area within a pediment, often decorated with scroll sawn ornaments, scalloped siding or sculpted figures as in Greek and Roman buildings.


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Towers

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belvedere – A tower or turret built for the purpose of giving a view.

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campanile - bell tower

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cupola - houseo n top - a small dome-like structure on top of a roof or tower.

tower - a building or structure, usually round or square in plan and characteristically taller than its diameter.

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Windows

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bay window - a projecting bay with windows that forms an extension to the interior floor space. On the outside, the bay should extend to ground level, in contrast to an oriel window which doesn’t touch the ground.

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broken pediment - a pediment over a a door, window or on a gable that is incomplete in the center of the bottom part of the triangle.

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dormer - A structure containing a vertical window(or windows)that projects through a pitched roof and has a roof of its

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casement – A window frame that opens on vertical hinges. A casement window contains two such vertical-hinged windows, separated by a mullion

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eyebrow dormer - a dormer that has a bell curve shape on top and a straight horizontal bottom. It looks a lot like an eyebrow, hence the name.

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fanlights-a window, often semicircular, over a door, with radiating muntins suggesting a fan.

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lancet window - a Gothic pointed window.

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louvered - a window shutter or door fitted with slanting fixed or movable slats to admit air, but exclude rain, snow, or to provide privacy.

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mullion - A vertical bar on a window or door that divides and supports the panes or panels.

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muntin - A thin strip of wood or metal that holds the panes within a window.

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oculus - round window.
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oriel window - a bay window that projects from the building above ground level. In medieval architecture, a bay window is corbeled out from the wall of an upper story.

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Paladian window - a window divide into three parts: a large, arched central window, flanked by two smaller rectangular windows. It is sometimes called Venetian window.

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pediment - a low triangular gable in classical architecture, surrounded by a cornice.

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sidelights - a framed window on either side of a door or window.

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transom-horizontal glazed opening above a door or window.

 

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Publication: When Building Speak, Stories Told By Oregon's Historical Architecture

Available on iTunes (coming in a few weeks) and in book form from the author, complete with illustrations and historical information.

Above glossary is in addition to the text.

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